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Call it out: racism, racial discrimination and human rights

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“Call it out: racism, racial discrimination and human rights

[Narrator]:
Welcome to “Call it out,” the Ontario Human Rights Commission’s eCourse on racism, racial discrimination, and human rights. Let’s get started.

[Narrator]:
Let’s start with a question. Has anybody in your life experienced racism or racial discrimination? More than just prejudice or bigotry.

[Narrator]:
Racism is more common in Canada than most people think. In fact, 40% of racialized people in Ontario who were surveyed by the Ontario Human Rights Commission in 2017 report experiencing discrimination because of race or colour, in the last 5 years.

[Narrator]:
Many people say “No” because they may not be aware of what racism means or think that it’s just about individual prejudices or beliefs. In fact, 40% of racialized people in Ontario who were surveyed by the Ontario Human Rights Commission in 2017 report experiencing discrimination because of race or colour in the last 5 years.

[Narrator]:
This course has 3 sections. In the first section, we will cover the history of racism in Canada. In the second section, we will talk about the forms that racism and racial discrimination can take in people’s lives. In the final section, we will talk about ways to identify and address racial discrimination in your life. At the end of this eCourse you will be able to: -Begin to recognize the historical implications and ongoing legacy of racism in Canada; -Name elements of the Ontario Human Rights Code and the different levels of racism and types of racial discrimination; -And identify race-based discrimination and harassment in the workplace.

[Narrator]:
Let’s begin by selecting Section 1: Roots of Racism.

[Narrator]:
(After completing section 1) We’ve told you about the significant role that history plays in racism today. Let’s get a little more comfortable talking about racism. Select Section 2.

[Narrator]:
(After completing section 2) Did you know that racism was that deep? Let’s explore module three to find ways we can do to help stop racism in our societies.

[Narrator]:
(After completing all 3 sections): Great job! You have completed all three parts. Now let's test what you have learned by taking the quiz.

[Narrator]:
Let’s stop in on Florencia and Dev, two co-workers talking in the office boardroom.

[Dev]:
You hear Steve got promoted to human resources manager?

[Florencia]:
Yeah.

[Dev]:
I thought you were next in line for a promotion.

[Florencia]:
I should be. I’ve got the skills, the experience…

[Dev]:
Yeah, it’s surprising.

[Florencia]:
I wasn’t surprised at all. I don’t think I have the right “look” to be a manager here.

[Dev]:
No? I think you look professional.

[Florencia]:
Come on. I know I have the right shoes, but I’m saying II don’t think I have the right look to be a manager at this company.

[Florencia]:
Experience and skills have nothing to do with getting a promotion around here.

[Dev]:
I never thought about that.

[Florencia]:
Most people never do.

[Narrator]:
The reality is that racism has been around a long, long time. It’s deeply rooted in Canada’s colonial past. The effects of the inequality and the trauma that racialized people faced in the past still linger in modern society. This is especially evident with social and economic differences.

[Narrator]:
Canada is a nation of immigrants, and that’s how we became one of the most diverse countries in the world. Step back and think about it; unless you are an Indigenous person, you or your family were immigrants at one point. Answer the two questions and Submit your response. This information won’t be used for data collection purposes.

[Narrator]:
It doesn’t matter if you arrived in Canada yesterday or many years ago. As a Canadian, you inherit the legacy and the history of racism of the generations who came before you.

[Narrator]:
Not everyone who wanted to build a life here in Canada was welcome. 1.2.1 [When user clicks on “African People”] - Between 1628 and the 1800s, 3,000 people of African ancestry who were enslaved in the United States were brought to Canada and forced to live here in slavery. Slavery is one of Canada’s best kept secrets. While Canada was also the destination for the Underground Railroad, generations of African Canadians faced overt discrimination in employment, housing, schools, churches, restaurants, hospitals and public transportation. The last segregated school in Ontario didn’t close until 1964. 1.2.2 [When user clicks on “Indigenous Peoples”] - Because of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, more people are now aware that institutions and governments subjected First Nations people to unspeakable treatment. From 1886 to 1996, 150,000 First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children were snatched from their families and forced to attend residential schools, where they endured isolation, denigration and abuse. The trauma of residential schools and the “60’s scoop” has been passed down from generation to generation. It’s a legacy that is still being felt today. 1.2.3 [When user clicks on “Chinese People”] - While Canada opened its doors wide to settlers from the United Kingdom and Western Europe, it was not so welcoming to other groups. From 1881 to 1884, 17,000 Chinese labourer s came to work on the Canadian Pacific Railway. Once it was completed, costing many workers their lives, Canada introduced a series of “head-taxes” that applied only to Chinese immigrants. After collecting $23 million in head-taxes, from 1923 to 1947 Canada shut the door to Chinese immigrants. 1.2.4 [When user clicks on “South Asian People”] - Canada welcomed British subjects, but not people who sailed on the Komagata Maru. In 1914, 376 Sikh, Hindu and Muslim passengers were not permitted to land in Vancouver. The ship was forced to return to India, where 19 men were shot and killed, and many more were imprisoned. 1.2.5 [When user clicks on “Jewish People”] - Discriminatory immigration policies applied to would-be immigrants on the east coast. In 1939, Canada turned away the MS St. Louis, an ocean-liner carrying 908 Jewish refugees. Forced back to Europe, one-quarter of the passengers later died in the Holocaust. 1.2.6 [When user clicks on “Japanese People”] - During World War II, the Canadian government forced 20,000 Japanese people – 75% who were Canadian citizens – into internment camps. Their homes, fishing boats and businesses were confiscated. When the war ended, 4,000 people were deported to Japan. 1.2.7 [When user clicks on “Post-WWII Immigrants”] - After the war, Canada continued with its preferred list of immigrants. That list favoured immigrants from the United Kingdom and Western Europe, and excluded people from racialized countries in Asia, Africa, Latin American and the Caribbean. People of European heritage were believed to be better suited culturally to populate Canada, and better able to adjust to the climate. It wasn’t until 1976 that Canada introduced a fairer immigration policy with the point system.

[Narrator]:
Racialized people have faced major disadvantages -- culturally, socially, economically, and even politically -- because of discrimination. This history of racial discrimination and disadvantage continues to affect racialized people today. We will look at a couple of the social and economic impacts that are felt in present day Canada.

[Narrator]:
Subtle and systemic racial discrimination are still deeply embedded in many institutional cultures, policies, practices, and procedures. This becomes more apparent when we look at employment trends. Youths aged 15 to 24 who are not racialized have an unemployment rate of 16%. Youths who are racialized have a much tougher time finding jobs, with an unemployment rate of 23% On top of that, racialized people are disproportionately likely to be working in low wage jobs.

[Narrator]:
Of people living in poverty who are aged 25 to 64, racialized people are much more likely to have a university certificate or degree. In fact, 32% of racialized people living in poverty have a high level of education, compared to 13% for non-racialized people. Couple this with the fact that 22% of racialized people live in poverty - twice the rate of non-racialized people - and it becomes apparent that the impacts of racial discrimination are still being felt today.

[Narrator]:
The modern social impacts of racial discrimination are readily event when you examine Japanese Canadians after World War II. After having their homes and businesses confiscated, the formerly strong Japanese Canadian communities struggled. The generation known as the “Sansei’ or the third generation grew up in mostly white communities, and many never learned to speak Japanese. Many never learned about their culture and values. Families were forced to relocate from their homes on the west coast and were scattered across the country.

[Narrator]:
Canadian history includes some ugly chapters where racism and racial discrimination made life-and-death differences for many people. At the same time, there have always been people with the courage to speak out against racial discrimination and to force change. Let’s look at one of the main tools used to combat racial discrimination: the Ontario Human Rights Code.

[Narrator]:
The efforts of labour and civil rights activists gained momentum after the war. They were motivated by a range of factors including the horrors of the Jewish holocaust and World War II war crimes committed in Europe and Asia. Another force motivating activists was the Black civil rights movement in the United States, decolonization and self-determination movements in the global South and among First Nations communities, and Canada’s role in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Select an era to find out about Ontario’s human rights legislation over the decades:

[Narrator]:
[When user clicks on “1940s”] - Ontario’s Racial Discrimination Act of 1944 prohibited publishing, displaying, or broadcasting any indication of discrimination based on race or creed, and outlawed “White Only” and “No Dogs or Jews Allowed” signs in Toronto.

[Narrator]:
[When user clicks on “1950s”] - In 1951, prompted by activists like African Canadian war veteran Hugh Burnett, Premier Leslie Frost introduced the Fair Employment Practices Act, and in 1952, the Fair Accommodation Practices Act. These two Acts were the model for the Ontario Human Rights Code.

[Narrator]:
[When user clicks on “1960s”] - In 1961, the Ontario Human Rights Commission was created and in 1962, the Ontario Human Rights Code was introduced. This new code would provide the most comprehensive human rights protections in Canada.

[Narrator]:
The Code first prohibited discrimination in services, facilities, public accommodation, employee, and trade union membership, on the grounds of race, creed, colour, nationality, ancestry and place of origin. Since then, other grounds have been added.

[Narrator]:
The Ontario Human Rights Code ensures that every person in Ontario has the right to be free from racial discrimination and harassment. This includes the right to be protected from racial discrimination in five areas of our lives called social areas: Employment; services, goods, and facilities like restaurants and public libraries; housing, such as apartments or co-ops; contracts; and finally, membership in trade and vocational associations, like unions or professional organizations.

[Narrator]:
While the Code refers specifically to race, it prohibits discrimination on several race-related grounds including colour, ethnic origin and ancestry, place of origin, citizenship and creed.

[Narrator]:
The experience of discrimination can also include Code grounds that intersect with race, like sex, age, and disability, or with gender expression, gender identity, family status, or sexual orientation. For example, a young, Black male may have a different experience than an older black woman with a physical disability.

[Narrator]:
[When user gets answer correct - 1.7.1] - Correct.

[Narrator]:
[When user gets answer incorrect - 1.7.2] - Incorrect.

[Narrator]:
Let’s check in on Dev and Florencia, who are discussing an upcoming meeting.

[Dev]:
“How racist are you?”

[Florencia]:
Who are you calling racist?

[Dev]:
That’s the opening question for tomorrow’s training. Are you coming?

[Florencia]:
I don’t know… I’m thinking of taking a sick day.

[Dev]:
Really? Why?

[Florencia]:
It’s not that I don’t think it’s important, but after Steve got that promotion over me… and everyone gets so uncomfortable talking about racism.

[Dev]:
But that’s how we all get comfortable. We talk about it.

[Narrator]:
How comfortable are you talking about racism? Would you recognize racism when it happens? How about racial discrimination? To start, let’s go through the following race-related terms: Race, racialization, racism, racial discrimination. They may sound the same, but their meanings are not.

[Narrator]:
Earlier, we discussed how the Ontario Human Rights Code prohibits discrimination because of a person’s race. But that brings up a good question. What does race mean? If you were asked to explain race, what would you say? A) Race is biological. It is related to inherent, physical characteristics such as skin tone, hair type, or facial features, and is conceived to be based in reality B) Race is a social construct that varies over time and place. It is a term that classifies people into groups based on physical differences which society chooses to emphasize.

[Narrator]:
[When user clicks on column A:] That’s incorrect. There is absolutely no legitimate scientific basis for racial classification, and don’t believe anyone who says otherwise. Now that you know race is a social construct, you might be curious about how it is constructed. That process is called racialization.

[Narrator]:
[When user clicks on column B] You’re right! There is absolutely no legitimate scientific basis for racial classification. Now that you know race is a social construct, you might be curious about how it is constructed. That process is called racialization

[Narrator]:
Racialization involves connecting traits and attributes to people based on perceptions about their race. Can you identify which features could be used to racialize a person?

[Narrator]:
When user fails to click on all the options: Actually, each of these could be used to racialize people. In Canada, the dominant group is connected to European culture. So European religious beliefs, names, foods, hairstyles, and clothes are viewed as the norm. When people are evaluated by being compared to the dominant group, which defines what it means to be ‘Canadian’, traits that are not European are too often deemed to be ‘abnormal’ or of ‘less worth.’

[Narrator]:
When user clicks on all the answers: You are right! Each of these could be used to racialize people. In Canada, the dominant group is connected to European culture. So European religious beliefs, names, foods, hairstyles, and clothes are viewed as the norm. When people are evaluated by being compared to the dominant group, which defines what it means to be ‘Canadian’, traits that are not European are too often deemed as ‘abnormal’ or of ‘less worth.’

[Narrator]:
Making assumptions about people based on perceived traits is known as stereotyping. Stereotyping involves using social categories such as race, colour, ethnic origin, creed, etc. to acquire, process, or recall information about others. Stereotyping is one of the main ways people are treated differently in everyday life. We can just turn on the TV to see how people are stereotyped. Who are depicted as drug dealers? Members of organized crime? As terrorists? The flip side of racialization is called “white privilege,” and involves treating whiteness as the norm. This can lead to consequences for people who are not white. White privilege disadvantages racialized people in many ways. For example, members of the dominant culture are rarely seen as "foreign” – they are less likely to have to explain where they come from, even if they are new arrivals. They are also less likely to be seen as a threat by shopkeepers when out shopping, are more likely to be depicted positively in the media, and are more likely to be considered a ‘good fit’ for a job without having to explain or show their abilities. We’ve gone through the meaning of race and the process of racialization. Now let’s consider racism and racial discrimination.

[Narrator]:
Do you know the difference between “racism” and “racial discrimination”?

[Narrator]:
[When user clicks on any answer] - Many people think they mean the same thing but there are very important differences. Let’s take a closer look at these concepts.

[Narrator]:
Let’s talk about “racism” first. How do you think racism operates in Canadian society? Check the boxes that you think apply then select submit.

[Narrator]:
[When user submits the right answer] That’s correct! Racism can take many forms in Canada, including every answer listed. Racism can exist in an individual’s attitudes and beliefs, and in organizational practices. It can be deeply embedded in institutional systems like education. It’s important to remember that racism is connected to power, or the ability to act on beliefs in meaningful ways that have an impact on people.

[Narrator]:
[When user submits the wrong answer] That’s not quite correct. Racism can take many forms in Canada, including every answer listed. Racism can exist in an individual’s attitudes and beliefs, and in organizational practices. It can be deeply embedded in institutional systems like education. It’s important to remember that racism is connected to power, or the ability to act on beliefs in meaningful ways that have an impact on people.

[Narrator]:
Racial discrimination is a legally prohibited act. It happens when any distinction, conduct or action, whether intentional or not, is based on a person’s race and has the effect of imposing burdens not imposed upon others. Racial discrimination could happen when someone acts on racist beliefs and attitudes in areas covered by the Code, such as employment, services, and housing. To be considered racial discrimination under the Code, it has to be more likely than not that race was one factor in the adverse treatment experience.

[Narrator]:
Racism can occur at three levels: - The Individual or interpersonal level, which includes “everyday racism” that happens with speech, glances or actions; - or, at the institutional or systemic level, involving organizations like governments and the education or justice system. Systemic racism can be unintentional. It is often caused by hidden biases in policies, practices and procedures that result in unequal opportunities and outcomes for people based on race. For example, a government adopts economic or public housing policies that, even though unintended, relocates and concentrates racialized or Indigenous peoples away from the city’s economic center and into areas with fewer resources, transportation, and job opportunities. As a result, neighbourhood schools become increasingly racially segregated. - The third level is societal, which involves all of a society’s institutions – political, economic, and social – as well as a society’s dominant culture or ideology. Societal racism is often popularly expressed and ingrained through widely held, everyday stereotypes or prejudices. We see a lot of this in the media.

[Narrator]:
Now that you have the definitions, let’s learn about some different types of racial discrimination from personal experiences. These examples are based on real-life situations. Names of people involved have been changed..

[Narrator]:
This is Fatima. She is in line to buy bus tickets .

[Narrator]:
As she waits, she overhears two employees talking to each other about her.

[Employee 1]:
Here comes trouble.

[Employee 2]:
I know what you mean. People like her are ruining everything.

[Narrator]:
Fatima speaks up.

[Fatima]:
Is there some sort of problem?

[Employee 1]:
Why don’t you just go back where you came from, okay?

[Fatima]:
I was born here...

[Narrator]:
That was an uncomfortable exchange to be sure, but could this be considered racial discrimination?

[Narrator]:
This harassment in a service could be linked to her creed and gender. In fact, Islamophobia is a new and rapidly increasing type of racial harassment. Under the Code, racial harassment may also include: - Epithets, slurs, or jokes; - Name calling or nicknames; - Cartoons or graffiti; - Ridiculing because of race-based characteristics, religious dress, etc; - Or being singled out for teasing, jokes, or comments based on race, ancestry, place of origin, or ethnic origin. Because this incident occurred in the process of receiving a service it could fall under the Code.

[Narrator]:
This is Desmond. He’s come for a flu shot at the walk-in clinic.

[Receptionist]:
Next… Health card please.

[Desmond]:
Here you go.

[Receptionist]:
You need to renew your card..

[Desmond]:
Oh, man. Really?

[Narrator]:
Hearing this, the White woman in line behind Desmond has a realization.

[Stacey]:
Uh oh. My health card expired 2 weeks ago.

[Receptionist]:
There is a place you can get it renewed down the street. They’ll have the forms for you there.

[Desmond]:
Oh, okay. Thanks.

[Receptionist]:
Next…. Health card please.

[Narrator]:
As Desmond leaves, the woman in line behind him steps forward.

[Stacey]:
Sorry, my health card is expired. But just by a little bit.

[Receptionist]:
Hmmm. I’ll make an exception. But get it updated, okay?

[Narrator]:
Desmond wasn’t treated particularly rudely, but could this be considered racial discrimination?

[Narrator]:
It may seem innocent enough, but selectively applying rules like this may be a form of “everyday racism” and could amount to racial discrimination under the Code. What’s happening here with Desmond is pretty subtle, but racial discrimination isn’t always obvious, and doesn’t have to be intentional. Remember that in human rights law, Desmond’s race only has to be one factor or reason for the differential treatment, and the evidentiary standard is, “on a balance of probabilities’. Everyone is entitled to equal treatment in services.

[Narrator]:
This is Jacqueline. She just got a new job and so she bought some new work clothes.

[Narrator]:
As Jacqueline leaves the store, she is stopped by a security guard.

[Guard]:
Hold on there. I need to have a look in your bags.

[Jacqueline]:
What’s the problem?

[Guard]:
Show me what’s in the bags, please.

[Jacqueline]:
I’ve got the receipts. Here, have a look.

[Guard]:
I saw you shopping in the lingerie department, but there’s no lingerie in these bags. Where are you hiding it?

[Jacqueline]:
You think I’m stealing?!

[Guard]:
It’s best to cooperate. You can come with me to the security office and I’ll call the police.

[Jacqueline]:
While we’re there, call your supervisor for me.

[Narrator]:
Could the security guard’s actions be racial discrimination?

[Narrator]:
The security guard’s actions could be racial profiling if Jacqueline’s racial background was a factor -- real or perceived -- in his decision to stop and search her. Racial profiling is about actions that are taken for reasons of safety, security, or public protection. It can occur when actions are taken based on stereotypical beliefs about race, colour, creed, or other race-related grounds, and when those actions result in singling out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. What other factors could compound racial profiling in this case? What if the police were called and the responding officer received instructions that included the message, “ADULT FML for SHOPLIFTING”.

[Narrator]:
This is Anne. She works at a bakery.

[Narrator]:
While working in the kitchen, Anne is approached by her White co-worker, David.

[David]:
Anne, I have to pop out and mail something. Can you watch the cash register?

[Anne]:
I’m actually super busy right now. Can you ask Ranpreet?

[David]:
Well I think the boss doesn’t like having people with you know, (quieter) a turban, (now normal) up front. She says the customers don’t like it. Plus he has a bit of an accent…

[Anne]:
What did you just say?!

[Narrator]:
Could this interaction between Anne and Steve be a type of racial discrimination?

[Narrator]:
At least two types of racial discrimination could be happening here. The first is known as an “adverse impact” situation because staff who have racialized characteristics such as facial hair, religious headwear, or other markers of identity such as an accent are not being given the same privileges as other staff. This could also be a poisoned work environment. Did you notice the poster with “Go Home” scrawled across the face of the Black hockey player, or the drawing of a banana? Even if the graffiti isn’t directed at a particular member of staff, a person of any racial group could experience a poisoned environment. Every employer, landlord, or service provider is responsible for ensuring an environment that is free from these types of behaviours and policies, even if no one objects.

[Narrator]:
This is Hank. He is a Manager and is reviewing job applications with his assistant.

[Assistant]:
Alright, I’ve narrowed it down to these three candidates. I’ve got their resumes here.

[Hank]:
What have we got?

[Assistant]:
Okay, first up we’ve got Zhou An Lin.

[Hank]:
Is that Joanne Lynne or Joe Allen?

[Assistant]:
Sorry. It’s Zhou. Z-H-O-U.

[Narrator]:
Hank looks over the resume.

[Hank]:
(sighs)

[Assistant]:
You can see there, she’s got pretty good experience, and basically all the skills we want.

[Hank]:
(unconvinced): Hmmm. Alright. I’ll think about it. Who else do we have?

[Assistant]:
Okay, this one is Martell King.

[Narrator]:
Again, Hank looks over the resume

[Assistant]:
He was really good in the phone screening. Good soft skills. What do you think?

[Hank]:
Hmmm. Well… Look, you know me - I’m happy to hire anyone. But some of our biggest clients are a little… old school. I don’t want to hire somebody who’s maybe going to cost us an account. He might just not be the right fit.

[Assistant]:
Okay, the last one is Becky Winters. Basically the same deal. Relevant experience, seems pretty sharp.

[Narrator]:
Hank looks over the resume, but this time with more interest.

[Hank]:
Hmmm, okay. Well, let’s bring this Becky in for an interview. If it doesn’t work then we’ll figure something else out.

[Narrator]:
It doesn’t seem that Hank has really said anything negative about any of the candidates, but could Hank’s actions still be a form of racial discrimination?

[Narrator]:
Hank’s behaviour here seems subtle, but could still be considered to be racial discrimination. What may be happening is systemic discrimination. Systemic discrimination is about patterns of behaviour, policies or practices that are part of an organization’s social or administrative structure, that create barriers for racialized people. In the workplace, systemic discrimination often includes a pattern of discriminatory behaviour across the organization that the organization fails to address. Systemic discrimination can include: - Excluding racialized people from formal or informal networks; - Not giving equal chances for training or development to racialized people; - Managers treating racialized people differently; - Assigning less desirable duties or jobs to racialized people; - Seeing racialized people as confrontational or insubordinate when normal differences of opinion arise; - Seeing normal behavior as aggressive when a racialized person is involved; - Penalizing a racialized person for not getting along with others at work, when discriminatory attitudes or behaviour are causing the tension. Systemic racial discrimination is also often the result of policies and procedures, or decision-making structures and processes, that, even if not intended, disadvantage or exclude racialized or Indigenous peoples.

[Narrator]:
This is Rennie and Bella. They just started working at a new job. For team-building, the company has regular social events after work and everyone is expected to attend.

[Narrator]:
Rennie and Bella are approached by one of their teammates.

[Lee]:
Hey there. The team’s going out for drinks tomorrow after work. It’s a good chance to network. You in?

[Narrator]:
Bella and Rennie share an uncomfortable look.

[Rennie]:
Ah, I can’t. I have a family thing.

[Lee]:
Come on, man. You never come out for drinks with us. You can’t move your family thing just one time?

[Rennie]:
No, I don’t think so. Maybe next time.

[Lee]:
Alright, suit yourself then. What about you Bella?

[Narrator]:
The Ontario Human Rights Code doesn’t dictate social interactions and the conversation here seemed very pleasant. But could there be some type of discrimination at play here?

[Narrator]:
If going out for drinks is optional or happens only once, the Code may not apply. But if it is a regular event, this could be a systemic practice that is part of the company’s culture. In this situation, by not going out for drinks, racialized staff may miss out on significant networking opportunities. The Ontario Human Rights Code does not dictate social interactions, and many co-workers socialize after work. There may be a number of reasons why staff would not take part, including family responsibilities, medical conditions, or economic reasons. But when religious or cultural practices based on Code grounds, such as race or ethnic origin, are not considered, going out for drinks after work could create a real barrier for some racialized people who could be missing out on networking opportunities, or it could lead to managers and co-workers thinking of them as not being “team players”.

[Narrator]:
This is Shayla. She just called 911 and asked them to come to her Grandfather’s unit at a First Nations housing co-op, for a medical emergency.

[Shayla]:
They should be here any second.

[Narrator]:
The police are the first to arrive.

[Shayla]:
In here. I think my Grandfather’s had a stroke.

[Officer]:
Sir. What’s your name? Can you look at me, sir? Ma’am, did he take any substances?

[Shayla]:
What? No.

[Officer]:
Can you understand me? English?

[Shayla]:
He can’t seem to talk.

[Officer]:
It’s okay. Calm down, ma’am. EMS will be right here. Where are they?!

[Narrator]:
The officer calls into dispatch.

[Officer]:
Dispatch, I’ve got an elderly male here, non-responsive, possibly intoxicated. Let’s have an officer at emerg when we arrive, in case we have a problem. Patient is a big guy.

[Narrator]:
Could the way the Officer dealt with this be considered racial discrimination?

[Narrator]:
Shayla’s grandfather lives in a First Nations housing co-operative, and the police officer assumes -- based on stereotypes -- that intoxication may be involved, or that Shayla or her Grandfather could create problems at the hospital.

[Narrator]:
[When user gets answer correct - 2.9.1] - Correct.

[Narrator]:
[When user gets answer incorrect - 2.9.2] - Incorrect.

[Narrator]:
Racism is a subject that many people don’t feel comfortable discussing. Learning to recognize racism and how racial discrimination operates is one way to make the discussion easier, and from there, to put measures in place to make sure that everyone has a safe and healthy workplace that is free from racial harassment and discrimination. Before we finish let’s stop in for a final visit with Dev and Florencia.

[Florencia]:
How was the training?

[Dev]:
Well, the training gave me a lot of insight into the promotion you didn’t get. There are many different ways people can be advantaged - and disadvantaged - based on their race alone, or in combination with their age, creed, gender or other Code grounds. It wasn’t so obvious to me before, even though it was happening right in front of my face. But where do we start to make it all stop?

[Florencia]:
Part of that job is figuring how to get to core of the organization - its policies, its practices, the way decisions are made...

[Dev]:
And organizational culture. Like the portraits hanging in the boardroom (sigh).

[Florencia]:
The Ontario Human Rights Commission has resources that could help. Like its Policy Primer to help develop human rights policies and procedures.

[Dev]:
And “Count me in” on collecting human rights-based data.

[Florencia]:
Great! Any other ideas?

[Dev]:
Yeah. An eCourse just on combatting racial discrimination.

[Florencia]:
For now, how about highlighting some approaches that organizations should take to help combat racism?

[Narrator]:
Organizations can combat racism and racial discrimination by reviewing policies, practices, and decision-making for systemic racial discrimination. Sometimes racially discriminatory policies are in place simply because nobody bothered to go back and review old, outdated policies. Another way to address racism and racial discrimination is to review organizational culture such as patterns of communication, interpersonal relations, and social networks. When lines of communications are open and equal for all, it creates an environment that helps promote inclusiveness. Additionally, collecting and analyzing numerical data can help fight racism and racial discrimination. Sometimes racially discriminatory tendencies only become apparent when you get an objective look at the numbers within your organization. For example, a company may learn there are few racialized people in leadership positions.

[Narrator]:
One common approach to combatting racial discrimination is an anti-racism strategy. These strategies actively acknowledge and proactively seek to eliminate racism and racial discrimination. This approach could include: 1. A comprehensive anti-racism and anti-discrimination vision statement, with a strong anti-racism policy and procedures, to ensure accountability; 2. Monitoring. Data collection should be undertaken where an organization believes that discrimination, systemic barriers, or the perpetuation of historical disadvantage may potentially exist. 3. Implementation strategies with clear and measurable goals and objectives. Anti-racism requires fundamental changes to the structures and systems of organization. 4. Ongoing evaluation is needed to ensure that the anti-racism program is effective.

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Correct.

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Incorrect

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Now that you’ve gone through the module, you should be able to recognize the historical implications and ongoing legacy of racism in Canada, name elements of the Ontario Human Rights Code and the different types of racism and racial discrimination, and identify race-based discrimination and harassment in the workplace.

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Correct! This responsibility is called vicarious liability. The organization as well as the “directing minds” – people who are involved in decision-making - may be vicariously liable.

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Incorrect. This responsibility is called vicarious liability. The organization as well as the “directing minds” – people who are central decision-makers – may be vicariously liable.

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Absolutely not! This is a very important point. The impact of past discriminatory experiences of racialized people still affects others’ lives today. Historical disadvantage created by past discrimination persists today, and subtle and systemic racial discrimination are still embedded in many institutional cultures and policies, practices, and procedures.

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Correct! This is a very important point. The impact of past discriminatory experiences of racialized people still affects others’ lives today. Historical disadvantage created by past discrimination persists today, and subtle and systemic racial discrimination are still embedded in many institutional cultures and policies, practices, and procedures.

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Correct! The Ontario Human Rights Code prohibits racial discrimination that occurs in protected social areas.

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That’s incorrect. The Ontario Human Rights Code prohibits racial discrimination that occurs in protected social areas.

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It’s completely unacceptable for organizations and institutions to ignore or fail to address human rights matters, whether or not a complaint has been raised. An organization violates the Code where it directly or indirectly, intentionally or unintentionally, infringes the Code.

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It’s completely unacceptable for organizations and institutions to ignore or fail to address human rights matters, whether or not a complaint has been raised. An organization violates the Code where it directly or indirectly, intentionally or unintentionally, infringes the Code.

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Correct: Stereotyping could involve using social categories such as race, colour, ethnic origin, creed , etc. to acquire, process or recall information about others.

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Incorrect. Stereotyping could involve using social categories such as race, colour, ethnic origin, creed , etc. to acquire, process or recall information about others.

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Congratulations! You’ve completed the course. It isn’t always easy to talk about racism and racial discrimination, but if nothing is said, nothing ever changes. Talking about racism means being honest about our past and understanding the intergenerational trauma and ongoing impact of historical and modern racial discrimination. It means understanding how racism operates, and knowing what checks and balances must be in place to counter the systemic effects of race-based discrimination. Talking about racism is a first step in challenging it. Doing something about racial discrimination is the next. This course is the start of that journey.

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These resources will help you to fight racism and racial discrimination in Ontario. For more information on your rights and responsibilities under the Code review these OHRC policies, including: - Policy and guidelines on racism and racial discrimination - Policy on preventing discrimination based on mental health disabilities and addictions - Policy on preventing discrimination based on creed - Count me in! Collecting human rights based data - A policy primer: Guide to developing human rights policies and procedures There are also plain-language brochures on each of these subjects. Members of the Ontario public service may also contact workplace discrimination and harassment prevention services or the anti-racism directorate. Additional resources are available at the link on the screen.

Call it Out

A 30-minute interactive eCourse that offers a foundation for learning about race, racial discrimination and human rights protections under Ontario's Human Rights Code. The course offers a historical overview of racism and racial discrimination, explains what “race,” “racism” and “racial discrimination” mean, and provides approaches to preventing and addressing racial discrimination.

Note: Call It Out is designed for use on desktops, laptops and tablets in landscape orientation.

Click the image below to begin.

For human rights concerns, the Human Rights Legal Support Centre, a community legal clinic, or a lawyer may be able to help you with your application and/or provide legal advice.

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